The monthly bleeding from the female genitalia throughout her reproductive life except during pregnancy and lactation is a normal physiologic process. The uterine bleeding occurs roughly in monthly cycles of approximately after every 28-30 days, lasting for about 2-7 days. The menstrual cycle is triggered by a hormone secreted under the control of the pituitary gland. Regular monthly menstrual period flushes out the mucous membrane lining of the uterus, endometrium, every month in anticipation of an unaccomplishable pregnancy. However, in some women the physiological menstrual cycles are disturbed due to various reasons and the cycle may become abnormal with variable bleeding patterns, the timing may become uncertain, clots.
Abnormal uterine bleeding
Menorrhagia: It is prolonged menstruation. Menorrhagia is defined by an elongated duration of menstrual bleeding (more than 6 days). The reason behind prolonged periods may be traced back to anatomical changes in the uterus and adnexa of the inflammatory processes in the uterus.
Hypermenorrhea: Excessive uterine bleeding or dysfunctional uterine bleeding is abnormal bleeding patterns with cycles being unpredictable may be due to functional or pathological abnormalities of the female organs.
Metrorrhagia, the in-between appearance of the period, maybe normal or lighter, or spotting between periods, may intend an unstable and leaking endometrial lining, either due to labile hormonal levels or because the endometrial lining is too thick.
Polymenorrhea: Frequent appearance of menstrual bleeding in cycle less than 21 days.
Menometrorrhagia is a condition with prolonged and excessive bleeding from the uterus that occurs irregularly and frequently than in a normal menstrual cycle.
Causes of abnormal uterine bleeding :
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
- Uterine polyps.
- Uterine fibroids.
- Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
- Hydatid mole
- Ectopic pregnancy
- Cancer of uterus
- Infection of cervix
- Foreign bodies like tampon or condom
Otherwise, the following factors can influence uterine bleeding patterns:
- Anovulation: Sometimes when ovulation does not occur, periods are suspended, which allows the endometrial lining of the uterus to grow thicker. Therefore, when the period finally appear the periods are much heavy.
- Menarche and menopause: During both the phases of life the bleeding may be profuse, heavy and irregular.
- Hormonal abnormalities (due to imbalance in hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis)
- Excessive workout or weight loss
- Stress or illness
Irregular bleeding with no significant time of appearance and may last for a different duration of time. The amount of blood flow may differ from light to exceedingly hefty, with or without clots. The clots may be larger. Sometimes, the uterine bleeding may be related to uterine cramps also.
How to recognize abnormal bleeding patterns:
- Heavy and profuse menstrual bleeding
- Bleeding may contain many small clots or large clots
- Bleeding may last more than seven days
- Bleeding may occur in-between the menstrual cycle in less than 21 days
- Bleeding between period
- Soaking a pad every hour
Apart from changing uterine bleeding patterns other symptoms that are
- Tenderness in breast
- Pelvic pain or pressure
- Low blood pressure
- Increased heart rate
- Pale skin
The doctor will take a complete medical record along with a detailed menstrual history. The doctor will try to inspect the symptoms that might imply a cause for the asymmetrical bleeding patterns or other hormonal anomalies. The doctor may suggest respective lab tests to investigate the causes of abnormal bleeding patterns:
- Pregnancy — Urine or blood tests
- Thyroid hormone
- Prolactin hormone
- Estrogen levels
- Pelvic ultrasound/ a transvaginal ultrasound
- Endometrial biopsy
Women with irregularity in menstrual periods can face various difficulty including difficulty in becoming pregnant. However, it does not mean infertility. Many effective treatments are available to regulate periods and control abnormal uterine bleeding. Protection against pregnancy is still obligatory for sexually active females.
Complications of abnormal uterine bleeding
Anemia is the prime complications of heavy and profuse bleeding. Generally, abnormal uterine bleeding is a temporary condition. Once the hormones are organized, irregular bleeding usually subsides.
Minerals and vitamin supplements are to be advised in women suffering from a significant blood loss.
Homeopathic treatment for abnormal and uncontrolled uterine bleeding
Erigeron canadensis: It is indicated in dysfunctional uterine bleeding (menorrhagia, hypermenorrhoea, and metrorrhagia). The abnormal uterine bleeding may be attended by gastrointestinal disturbances. Symptoms like diarrhea or dysuria can cause distress. It is efficiently prescribed when the flow is profuse of bright-red blood from the vagina. It can be indicated in bleeding hemorrhoids or nose bleed instead of menses.
Millefolium: It is chiefly indicated for menses early and with bright-red fluent. Otherwise, it is considered the best alternative for bad effects of over lifting, post-operative weaknesses, overexertion. It is also prescribed in different types of bleeding disorders, hemorrhages, where blood is bright red.
Sabina: It is indicated for menorrhagia and metrorrhagia where the discharge of blood is excessive black. This medicine is an organ-specific to the uterus. It can expeditiously ameliorate the symptoms when the menses are too early, frequent, too profuse, and proceed for a long duration. Primarily prescribed when the menstrual emanation is partly fluid, partly clotted and offensive. The discharged blood may be bright red or dark and coagulated. The flows are brought on by a slender movement.