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Vaginal Bleeding During Early Pregnancy: Causes & Treatment


Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy

Bleeding during pregnancy happens due to various reasons. It is usual to have some bleeding at some point in pregnancy, especially in the first trimester. About 30 percent of women experience spotting or mild bleeding in the first trimester of their pregnancy. Usually, it is a normal part of the early stages of pregnancy. About one in four women experience vaginal spotting or bleeding during the first trimester. Most of them go on to have healthy pregnancies and childbirth without complications.

Sometimes vaginal bleeding may be a sign of distress or a complication. So, it is always good to contact your healthcare provider immediately and check it out directly. There are many causes as to why you might have vaginal spotting or bleeding in the first trimester.

Common causes of vaginal bleeding in the first trimester

Vaginal bleeding or spotting in the first trimester is usually expected and doesn’t always mean something is wrong. Try not to panic. Contact your healthcare provider and share your concerns, and get treated immediately.

Some of the common causes of first-trimester light bleeding and spotting are:

  • Implantation
  • Cervical polyps
  • Uterine infections
  • Yeast infection
  • Carrying multiple babies

Some of the severe causes of bleeding in the first trimester are:

  • Miscarriage
  • Threatened abortion
  • Molar pregnancy
  • Ectopic pregnancy
  • Subchorionic hemorrhage
  • A cervical infection

Causes of vaginal bleeding in the second or third trimester

Any complication or serious condition may cause vaginal bleeding during the second part of pregnancy, so it is crucial to treat it as an emergency and get medical help as soon as possible. Some of the conditions that can cause bleeding in the second and third trimesters are:

  • Cervix problems: Any infection, inflammation, or growth on the cervix can lead to vaginal bleeding. It can be treated easily.
  • Placental abruption: In this condition, the placenta detaches from the uterine lining before or during the last stage of pregnancy. Placental abruption is a rare and life-threatening condition for both the mother and fetus. It is a placental condition where the placenta abruptly detaches from the uterine wall. In this condition, the nutrients and oxygen to the baby are cut off from the wall of the uterus.
  • Placenta previa: The placenta is situated too low in the uterus and close to the cervix. In this case, there is vaginal bleeding without any pain. Placenta previa or low-lying placenta is a condition, where the placenta occupies most of your cervix. It is rare after 20 weeks of pregnancy. It causes severe bleeding when the cervix dilates and begins to contract.
  • Vasa previa: In this condition, the placenta’s blood vessels lie very low and along the neck of the uterus.
  • Premature labor: Sometimes, vaginal bleeding and contractions may indicate that you are going into labor before the expected date.
  • Missed abortion: Vaginal bleeding may result from a miscarriage without any warning signs.
  • Bloody show: During the last stage of pregnancy, there is light bleeding along with mucus that indicates that you are nearing the end of your pregnancy and entering labor.
    Uterine rupture: It is a serious, rare, but life-threatening condition where the uterus tears open along the scar line from a prior C-section.

Other minor causes of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy

Sometimes bleeding may not be caused by any medical conditions or due to any complications. But it is always better to discuss any spotting or bleeding with the doctor to be sure. Such reasons are:

  • Sexual intercourse: Sometimes, few women experience mild bleeding after having sex. It is harmless and caused due to the tenderness of the cervix during pregnancy.
  • Pelvic examination or ultrasound: It is common to experience slight bleeding after a pelvic exam such as a speculum or transvaginal ultrasound. The procedure can be painful and sensitive.
  • Infection: Certain vaginal infections, such as Chlamydia, gonorrhea, yeast infections, urinary tract infections, etc., can cause mild bleeding.
  • Cervical polyp: Cervical polyps are finger-like growth on the cervix. They are usually benign and may get inflamed or irritated and cause bleeding. Usually, they do not have any symptoms and are primarily diagnosed during a routine pelvic exam.
  • Intercourse or a physical exam: They can irritate or injure the cervix and cause bleeding. A little blood on your underwear shortly after sex or a physical examination procedure is normal.
  • Ectopic pregnancy: It occurs when a fertilized egg implants itself somewhere else on its way to the uterus—in most cases, found in the fallopian tubes. A fetus can only grow and develop in the uterus, so ectopic pregnancies have to be medically treated or terminated.
  • A molar pregnancy: occurs when the placental tissue grows abnormally like a bunch of grapes instead of a fetus. It happens due to a genetic mutation. A molar pregnancy causes vaginal bleeding and miscarriage in the first trimester.
  • Subchorionic hemorrhage: Subchorionic bleeding, or hematoma, is a condition that happens when the placenta slightly detached from the wall of the uterus, which leads to bleeding and clot under the placenta. It forms a gap between the placenta and uterine wall. The smaller hematoma is harmless, and the woman may have a healthy pregnancy. Still, larger ones cause severe vaginal bleeding and increase the risk of a miscarriage within the first 20 weeks of pregnancy.

Also Read Maintain your Reproductive Health for a Healthy Life

What is the color of the vaginal bleeding?

Bleeding during pregnancy can be different for every woman. Therefore, the doctor might want to know your blood’s appearance to evaluate the severity. Some of the details you need to look for are:

The color of your blood, consistency of your blood, clotting, the amount of blood, etc.

When should I seek medical attention?

You should contact your doctor immediately or visit the nearest healthcare center if there are:

  • Heavy bleeding
  • Violent pains
  • Dizziness
  • Shortness of breath

Does vaginal bleeding mean a miscarriage?

Vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy is a usual symptom and does not mean you are having or about to have a miscarriage. Experts say that women who experience mild bleeding in early pregnancies later have healthy childbirth. But in some cases, it may be a sign of impending abortion.

During late pregnancy, a few women might have heavy vaginal bleeding. As a result, they risk losing the baby or bleeding excessively. Sometimes the loss is too much that blood pressure becomes dangerously low. There is also a risk of small blood clots forming in the bloodstream.

When to seek medical care?

Get immediate medical attention if you have the following:

  • Heavy vaginal bleeding
  • Vaginal discharge with clots or membranous tissue
  • Severe pain and chills
  • Severe cramping
  • Severe nausea and vomiting
  • Dizziness or fainting
  • High temperature

What will the doctor do if I have vaginal bleeding?

The doctor will conduct a thorough examination to identify the cause of your bleeding. Some of the tests are:

  • A routine physical examination.
  • A pelvic ultrasound.
  • A Doppler ultrasound exam.
  • A complete blood test.
  • Test for pregnancy markers and hormones, especially the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).
  • Uterine scans to study the position and site of implantation, growth, and heartbeat of the baby. The fetal heartbeat can be checked with a Doppler scan as early as five and a half weeks of pregnancy.

How is bleeding during pregnancy treated?

An ultrasound and physical evaluation will determine the cause of the bleeding. A blood test and urine test will be done to study the hormones and HCG levels.

Some of the simple tips to prevent vaginal bleeding during pregnancy are:

  • Relax and stay off your feet.
  • Avoid sex.
  • Avoid traveling.
  • Complete rest.
  • Hospitalization or surgery if the bleeding is severe.
  • Avoid vigorous exercise
  • Avoid lifting heavy objects.

Visit or consult your doctor if you have bleeding or spotting during pregnancy. Even if it is not severe, the doctor might want to make notes of your symptoms, such as:

  • Heavy vaginal bleeding.
  • Cramps and contractions.
  • Pelvic pains.
  • Dizziness or fainting.
  • Fever or chills.
  • Other signs like water breaking.

Some problems that cause vaginal bleeding during the first trimester, such as a cervical polyp, can be treated at the clinic. At the same time, some issues may need more attention, treatment, medication, or surgery. A spontaneous abortion at any point in your pregnancy is a tragic loss. It is always efficient to talk to a therapist and your partner and grieve harmlessly.

Homeopathy pregnancy kit – Pregnancy and Birth kit remedies with indications

Homeopathy can offer a safe alternative to many problems faced by women during pregnancy. The homeopathic medicines are safe to use throughout the pregnancy, childbirth and also for the newborn. These medicines should be taken under the proper guidance of a registered homeopathic physician. No medicines should be taken by self. Sometimes it might be harmful. So always consult a doctor before taking any medicine during pregnancy.

A homeopathy pregnancy kit should contain the necessary medicines needed during pregnancy. A homeopathic physician should choose it for various common problems you may encounter during pregnancy and childbirth. We recommend that the kit contain the following remedies in an easy-to-carry portable container. Some of the medicines and their indications are given below. They are:

Aconite, Arsenicum album, Cantharis, Caulophyllum, Chamomilla, Cimicifuga, Gelsemium, Hamamelis, Ignatia, Ipecacuanha, Sepia, Staphysagria, Kali carbonicum, Arnica, Belladonna, Bellis perennis, Calendula, Nux vomica, Phytolacca, Pulsatilla, Rhus toxicodendron, etc.

The indications of the remedies are:

Arnica: Arnica is used to heal bruised parts with soreness and lameness of parts after delivery, especially after an assisted delivery. Arnica is helpful in cases of varicose veins, threatened abortion, premature labor, or any injury, such as a blow to the abdomen.

It can be instrumental in healing the scar and reducing the pain and swelling after a C-section, forceps delivery, vacuum extractions, and other arduous labors with injury, tear, or bruising.

  1. Cimicifuga: It is indicated for irregular labor and non-delayed labor. Severe pains and contractions in the thighs, hips, and back instead of the uterus. This remedy helps dilate the cervix.
  2. Hypericum: Indicates if the birth has been complicated and if the patient has had a tear due to episiotomy. When given along with Arsenicum, it helps to control pain and avoid infection.
  3. Belladonna: Belladonna is very useful for violent and spasmodic contraction during labor. The contractions are inefficient due to constriction of the cervix. It is also indicated for eclampsia, postpartum infections, violent afterpains, and mastitis when there is a sudden onset with a high fever and the breasts are very red and inflamed. The breast feels hot and painful, violent throbbing with red streaks running from the nipple upward. It is also indicated when a pregnant woman coughs with pain in the throat.
  4. Bryonia: It is one of the best remedies for mastitis during lactation or weaning. Red streaks with breasts are hard, painful, hot, with heaviness.
  5. Calendula: It helps to heal wounds or minor cuts and is especially indicated for ruptures of the cervix and perineum during childbirth. It can be taken for several weeks till the wounds heal. In addition, it can be given for lacerations and bruises, episiotomy, and C-section scars to help cure the tissues and prevent infections.
  6. Ignatia: It is indicated for threatened abortion due to grief and fear. It can be given for easy conception. The past failed conceptions and miscarriages make her fearful and anxious about her pregnancy.
  7. Castor equi: It can help to heal the sore nipples of breastfeeding mothers.
  8. Chamomilla: It is indicated for cramps and pains during labor. Also useful for afterpains, headaches, and painful breasts. It can be given when there is insufficient milk flow; the milk dries up after an angry outburst.
  9. Graphites: It can help nipples to heal if the patient is breastfeeding a baby.
  10. Hamamelis: It is indicated for tiredness and soreness of the legs with varicose veins and hemorrhoids.
  11. Hepar sulphuricum: It is an excellent remedy for healing internal or external wounds after surgery.
  12. Lycopodium: It is indicated for passing hard stools during pregnancy.
  13. Phytolacca: It is one of the best homeopathic medicines for mastitis. The breast feels very hard with hard lumps, painful during nursing. There is intense pain starting at the nipple and radiating outward. The nipples are very sore and may be cracked. The breasts are often lumpy, with hard knots or nodules.
  14. Ruta: It is indicated for sore, aching, and bruised types of body pains and stiffness of knees.
  15. Sabina: It is indicated for bleeding with clots. It can be used to control vaginal bleeding during pregnancy.
  16. Tabacum: It is a valuable remedy for morning sickness, with severe nausea that is worse from the smell of tobacco. It is also helpful for sea sickness and vomiting. The symptoms are worse in the morning, with much spitting and acidity.
  17. Bellis perennis: It is a beneficial remedy after a miscarriage after Arnica. It helps to heal the tears in the perineum and episiotomy scars and also helps control the bleeding.
  18. Cantharis: It is a well-indicated remedy for expelling the retained placenta. This remedy slows down uterine contractions. As a result, there may be burning pain, cystitis, difficulty urinating, fever, and sometimes vomiting. It is also the first remedy to consider for the expulsion of a dead fetus.
  19. Caulophyllum: It helps in stimulating effective contractions and enhancing labor. It will make contractions more efficient and can establish delivery. It can be used at the beginning of labor when the labor is not progressing, and the cervix does not dilate.
  20. Gelsemium: It is a beneficial remedy before labor for women who are anxious about the impending delivery. The woman is weak, sleepy, apathetic, and indifferent. It is indicated for cervical rigidity during labor. Intense pains but slow dilations. It is helpful in cases of ineffectual labor pains with an incompetent cervix. It is indicated to speed up the contractions and dilation of the cervix.
  21. Ipecac: It is indicated for constant nausea and vomiting with paleness and increased salivation. Nausea that does not get better by vomiting. The patient feels inclined to sleep after vomiting, and the symptoms worsen. Also, postpartum hemorrhage occurs when the woman feels faint, gasping for breath, with persistent nausea.
  22. Kali carbonicum: It is most indicated for threatened abortion in the early months, irregular labor pains, delayed labor, postpartum depression, postpartum hemorrhage, and violent afterpains, especially backaches.
  23. Nux vomica: It is indicated for nausea and vomiting every morning. She wants to vomit but cannot. Intense nausea with retching and cramping pain in the stomach before vomiting. It is the best remedy for morning sickness of pregnancy and constipation, hemorrhoids, and varicose veins during pregnancy.
  24. Rhus toxicodendron: It is one of the best homeopathic remedies for miscarriage due to injury. The woman is restless and cannot stay in one place long. Threatened abortion from heavy lifting, straining, or overexertion. It is also helpful in treating phlebitis and muscle strain with a lot of restlessness and stiffness.
  25. Sepia: It is a female remedy indicated for various female complaints. Nausea and constipation during pregnancy. It is an excellent remedy to expel the retained placenta, afterpains, and postpartum depression.
  26. Staphysagria: It is indicated for healing the scar and wounds through C-section, episiotomy, or other types of surgical incision.
  27. Pulsatilla: It is indicated for turning a breech baby. It is a valuable remedy for constipation, hemorrhoids, varicose veins, and various problems during pregnancy and labor.


Bleeding during pregnancy can be a scary and emotional experience. Some bleedings during pregnancy are severe, while others are not. Talk to or visit your doctor immediately and clarify your doubts and fears. It is essential to discuss any vaginal bleeding or abnormal vaginal discharge during pregnancy to rule out any future complications. In addition, it is necessary to find out the cause of your vaginal bleeding and get it treated immediately to ensure you and your fetus are healthy.

During the first part of pregnancy, a woman’s body undergoes drastic changes. It is due to the sudden surge in hormone levels and the creation of a new blood circulation system for the fetus. Due to such mighty changes, a mild amount of vaginal bleeding is expected during such processes.

Pregnancy is a roller coaster of emotions and symptoms. Above all, it is essential to keep your loved ones close and ask for help when needed. Talk to your partner, friends, and family when you feel down or have doubts. Being surrounded by the people you love can make the experience much more manageable.

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