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Pollinosis

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Pollinosis is the hay fever which is excited by pollens of various plants. It is also known as seasonal allergic rhinitis as it occurs only during that time of the year in which certain plants pollinates. In spring season hay fever is commonly due to tree pollen. In summers grass and weed pollens cause hay fever. In autumn season weeds are the triggering agent, while primarily from late march through November fungus spores cause hay fever.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

These include the following:

  • Prolonged and sometimes violent paroxysms of sneezing.
  • Itchy, nose, throat and roof of mouth.
  • Stuffy or runny nose due to nasal congestion.
  • Anosmia i.e. loss of smell.
  • Post nasal drip
  • Cough due to post nasal drip.
  • Tendency to clear the throat frequently.
  • Watery and itchy eyes.
  • Head and nasal congestion
  • Ear pressure and fullness
  • Fatigue
  • Dark circles under the eyes commonly known as allergic shiners which are due to periorbital hematomas. 
  • Sinusitis due to blockage of sinus drainage openings by the swollen nasal membranes.
  • Nasal polyps which are small non cancerous growths 
  • Nosebleeds can also occur during hay fever attacks. 
 

CAUSES OF HAY FEVER

Hay fever is found to be genetically determined. Majority of patients with pollinosis have their parents or siblings also suffering from some form of allergy. Also people with eczema and asthma are more commonly found to develop hay fever.

Hay fever occurs when the immune system of the body views harmless agents like inhaled pollens as dangerous substances entering the body. The immune system then overreacts and floods the bloodstream with chemicals like histamines and leukotriens. These chemicals then inflame the lining of the nasal passages, sinuses and eyelids and thus produce symptoms associated with hay fever. 

The various symptoms of hay fever are in fact meant to protect the body from the allergens either by trapping and expelling them or by swelling the body areas to avoid the entry of the allergens. 

DIAGNOSIS 

Hay fever can be diagnosed by the physician based on symptoms present and physical examination. If required doctors can advise skin and blood tests to see how the body reacts to certain substances. During the skin tests the doctor pricks the back or arm of the patient with tiny tubes containing common allergens. If the body is allergic to any of them then the skin at the test site becomes red, itchy or swollen. 

In blood tests when the allergen binds to the antibodies produced by the body in response to allergy located in the nose, eyes or mouth chemicals are released by the body producing above symptoms.

GENERAL MANAGEMENT

Although mostly an inherited trait, pollinosis can be managed with some simple steps.

  • A lot of sneezing and itching can be kept in check by steering clear of the things that trigger them. One must limit outdoor activities when pollen counts are high.
  • Nasal irrigation and saline sprays using salt and boiled, sterile or distilled water can be used to remove allergen particles from your nose.
  • When outside wear a hat with a brim to protect the face and hair. On going inside one must wash their face and hands and change clothes. If possible one can take a shower at night.
  • Also one must follow a healthy lifestyle by including well balanced and nutritious diet and get regular exercise to boost their immune system.
 

HOMOEOPATHIC MANAGEMENT  

Homoeopathy provides the best solution for treating seasonal allergies. Well selected homoeopathic medicine not only helps to alleviate the present troublesome symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis in a patient but it eventually eliminates the very tendency of the immune system to produce such an exaggerated response to harmless allergens in the surroundings. For this a homoeopathic physician takes a detailed case record of the patient and elicits symptoms pertaining to both the mind and the body. The best selected homeopathic medicine is the one most similar to this symptom presentation. 

Commonly indicated homoeopathic medicines to treat seasonal allergic rhinitis are:

Allium Cepa: It is indicated when allergic rhinitis occurs mainly in damp cold weather. The symptoms such as sneezing  and running nose are triggered on entering a warm room and in the evening and are better on going out in the open air. There is feeling of a lump at root of the nose. The discharge from the nose is typically copious, watery and extremely acrid. Accompanying the nasal discharge is much burning and smarting lachrymation. Eyes are suffused with profuse and bland lachrymation which also gets better in open air. Fluent coryza with headache, cough and hoarseness can be present. Allium cepa can also help treat nasal polyps.

Arsenic Album: It is indicated in allergic rhinitis with symptoms such as sneezing and thin, watery and excoriating discharge from the nose. The nose feels stopped up and there can be accompanying burning and bleeding from the nose. The symptoms are typically worse in open air and better indoors and from warm application.  

Sabadilla: It is indicated in allergic rhinitis with spasmodic sneezing and runny nose. The nasal discharge is copious and watery. Coryza is commonly accompanied with severe frontal pain and congested eyes with lachrymation. Symptoms are worse in cold outdoor air and from flower pollens and better from warm drinks and warm room.

Sanguinaria: It is indicated when the nasal mucus membrane is dry and congested. Nasal polyps may be present. Sudden stopping of coryza is generally followed by diarrhoea in such patients. Apart from this the person has marked vasomotor disturbance as seen in the circumscribed redness of cheeks, flashes of heat, burning in palms and soles and distention of temporal veins.

Sticta Pulmonaria: It is indicated in hay fever with incessant sneezing. There is feeling of fullness at the root of the nose with the constant need to blow the nose. The nasal membrane is dry with no discharge on blowing the nose. The cold is generally preceded or accompanied by rheumatic pains such as stiffness of neck.    

Wyethia: It is indicated when there is much itching in posterior nares and palate causing the patient to constantly hem and clear his throat without much relief from clearing. This is generally accompanied by dry, hacking cough and a tendency to get hoarseness while singing or talking.   

Pollinosis

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